There are typically two views that deal with that effect. Below we present those views, especially for advanced readers among us.
One view (Arminians and some Reformed) believes Romans 5:12 describes God-given punishments to Adam’s sin which affect all people: sin “entered the world” as did death. (Romans 5:12-18,1 Corinthians 15:22). Another punishment we have from Adam is that God cursed childbearing and the earth (Gen 3:16,17). Now the world is groaning under bondage to decay (Romans 8:20-21). Adam’s sin also brought punishment to human nature itself. Humanity got a sinful nature. It is corrupted with ‘sinful passions’ (Romans 7:5). In addition, human nature inherited from Adam is too weak to obey God’s law (Roman 8:3). The result is that all humanity has sinned (Rom 5:12). As we sin in different amounts according to our desires we also heap up more punishment for ourselves (Romans 2:5-6).
The other view (Calvinist doctrine) states that Adam’s sin has resulted not only in our having a sin nature, but also in our incurring guilt before God for which we deserve punishment. Being conceived with original sin upon us (Psalm 51:5) results in our inheriting a sin nature so wicked that Jeremiah 17:9 describes the human heart as deceitful above all things and beyond cure. Not only was Adam found guilty because he sinned, but his guilt and his punishment (death) belongs to us as well (Romans 5:12, 19). There are two views as to why Adam’s guilt should be seen by God as also belonging to us. The first view states that the human race was within Adam in seed form; thus, when Adam sinned, we sinned in him. This is similar to the biblical teaching that Levi (a descendant of Abraham) paid tithes to Melchizedek in Abraham (Genesis 14:20; Hebrews 7:4-9), even though Levi was not born until hundreds of years later. The other main view is that Adam served as our representative and so, when he sinned, we were found guilty as well. This view sees one as unable to overcome his sin apart from the power of the Holy Spirit, a power possessed only when one turns in reliance upon Christ and His atoning sacrifice for sin upon the cross. This view of original sin is most consistent with biblical teaching. However, how can God hold us accountable for a sin we did not personally commit? There is a plausible interpretation that we become responsible for original sin when we choose to accept, and act according to, our sinful nature. There comes a point in our lives when we become aware of our own sinfulness. At that point we should reject the sinful nature and repent of it. Instead, we all “approve” that sinful nature, in effect saying that it is good. In approving our sinfulness, we are expressing agreement with the actions of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. We are therefore guilty of that sin without having committed it.